Are special barcode devices needed to receive, put away and pick goods?

No, this is what you need:

Mobile device: It runs on any mobile device (android/ios) with a webbrowser and possibility to connect a barcode scanner.

Windows/OSX system: To print shipping documents.

Clougistic supports webhooks to create printjobs for Printnode. Printnode is a 3th party tool for Windows or OSX.

Printer: To print labels and shipping documents.

Any wireless (RF) internet access to the Clougistic cloud.

Any of the following devices will do the task:

How do I identify warehouse locations?

Most common: Zone-Aisle-Rack-Shelf-Bin. Every location starts with the Zone ID.

How can I print barcode labels to identify warehouse locations?

Printing barcode labels for zone locations is not part of Clougistic. There are very goods barcode printing software solutions on the market at a low price.

We used: DRPU Barcode Label Maker

Do we need to install Clougistic on our own servers?

Clougistic is a full Cloud SaaS Warehouse Management solution. This means you don't need to host the software yourself. Neither do you have to invest in servers.

Which barcode symbology is supported?

Clougistic supports Code128B. In theory, any code is possible, if the selected barcode scanner supports it.

The Soft Keyboard on my android device is not opening when the BT scanner is connected

You are able to change the behaviour of it in setting > (more settings) > Language & Input > Keyborad, mouse and track pad > Show soft keyboard when fysical keyboard is active.